While THE GATT was a set of rules agreed upon by nations, the WTO is an intergovernmental organization with its own headquarters and staff, whose scope covers both traded goods and trade in the service sector and intellectual property rights. Although used for multilateral agreements, multilateral agreements have led to selective exchanges and fragmentation among members in several rounds of negotiations (particularly the Tokyo Round). WTO agreements are generally a multilateral mechanism for the settlement of GATT agreements. [24] In 1947, the average fee rates for large GATT participants were about 22%. [4] As a result of the first rounds of negotiations, tariffs at the heart of the GATT of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia have been reduced relative to other contracting and non-GATT countries. [4] During the Kennedy Round (1962-67), the average level of tariffs for GATT participants was about 15%. [4] After the Uruguay Round, tariffs were less than 5%. [4] The WTO was created in 1995 to succeed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) created after the Second World War. THE WTO agreements, which are important for food protection measures, are measures relating to health and plant health measures (SPS) 2 and technical barriers to trade (OTC). The SPS and OBT agreements are complementary, both constituting the general legal basis for other legally binding international agreements and instruments that will be adopted on a voluntary basis, such as the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (Karnicki, 1996).

The SPS agreement includes: relevant laws, regulations and regulations; testing, inspection, certification and authorisation procedures; packaging and labelling requirements directly related to food safety. On the other hand, the TBT agreement includes all technical rules relating to traditional quality factors, fraudulent practices, packaging and markings. Ensure compliance with laws and rules that are not contrary to the provisions of this agreement, including those relating to the protection of patents, trademarks and copyrights and the prevention of fraudulent practices; The GATT had three main provisions. The most important requirement was that each member be obliged to confer the status of the most favoured country on any other member. All members must be treated the same with respect to tariffs. It excluded special tariffs between members of the British Commonwealth and the Customs Union. It allowed tariffs if their removal causes serious damage to domestic producers. The Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) ended in 1994, after 7.5 years of negotiations, with the signing of the final deed on 15 April 1994 in Marrakech, Morocco. This issue, known as the “GATT of 1994,” led to the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 1 January 1995.

Among the agreements included in the WTO Treaty is the Agreement on the Application of Health and Plant Health Measures (SPS Agreement), which sets out the basic rules for the protection of human, animal and plant health during international trade (WTO, 1995). The sixth round of GATT multilateral trade negotiations, which took place from 1964 to 1967. It was named after U.S. President John F. Kennedy in recognition of his support for the reformulation of the U.S. trade agenda, which culminated in the Trade Expansion Act in 1962.

Posted Friday, December 18th, 2020 at 12:50 pm
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